Tag: Indoor growing

High Pressure Aeroponics – Proper Plumbing

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Laying Proper Pipe Will Provide Success!

High Pressure Aeroponics needs reliable piping that can handle its needs OR you are risking disaster! If a system leaks it can create a massive mess, not work properly, and WORSE your plants will suffer or even DIE! This is why you must properly choose all the pipelines AND proper fittings. This should be done in the design phase of your DIY project. Also check out our post on Nutrient Solution’s Worse Enemy! LIGHT.  

Pipe / Tube

The pipe you select will have the purpose of transporting your nutrient solution throughout your system. It will start by up-taking it from the nutrient reservoir to transport it to the misting nozzles for your plant roots. 

Design Concerns

Most important thing to think about is design of your system. Like a car, the plumbing of your system needs to be selected based on your design. You can always “overbuild” the plumbing but that can quickly get costly and serve no purpose.

  • What pressure are you running your system at? Different pipe will be “rated” for different pressure ranges. I ALWAYS say it is best to be at least 30% or more UNDER the maximum pressure range of your piping. This is in case there are any weak spots or just like anything, the pipe can slightly weaken over time. 
  • Budget as money is KING! Everyone would love just to overbuild or make the “best” system possible. But blowing a budget on elements like piping you will never receive any benefit from is just a Waste of funds!
  • Ease of use and/or installation: Different types of piping we discuss below will have advantages and disadvantages. One of the big ones are ease of installation. A pipe that bends easily or has simple fittings can be a huge benefit of simplication. 

Types of Pipe For HPA

There are many different options, but you will see many of the “major” families of pipe. I go over the different major types below where they all have different advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes using multiple different types maybe the best solution for your hydroponic system. Many times systems will use one type of pipe for simplicity but sometimes other systems will be designed to use 2 or more types to take advantage of their strengths in different parts of the hydroponic system. Example of this commonly seen is Poly tubing for most of the hydroponic system with Stainless Steel being used for the mist nozzle manifolds inside the root chamber only.  

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel Pipe

Stainless steel is going to be your most expensive option. It has many advantages including cleanliness, strength for high pressure, and more. But it does have the disadvantages of being harder to work with due to being rigid and biggest being high cost. You will see it mainly used in commercial High Pressure Aeroponic systems especially as mist nozzle manifolds inside the root chambers. It is not popular for smaller residential systems. For most I would discourage its use mainly due to high cost.

Poly Types:

Black Food Grade Poly Tube

Different polymer “Poly” tubes are very popular in all hydroponic systems. They are easy to work with, lower cost, and come in many different varieties. Honestly this is my tubing of choose as it has very few disadvantages.

  • Ease of Use: This tubing is easy to cut and has a massive amounts of “push to connect” fittings to choose from. It also easy bends instead of being rigid, so it does not require nearly as many fittings as rigid types. Finally it can be cut with both special cutters for nice clean cuts or as simple as a box cutter. No need for special grinders, saws, or etc. 
  • Low Cost: This option is low cost comparative to stainless steel as it generally only costs couple cents per foot. 
  • Varieties: It comes in “endless” varieties as it is used in so many different applications from soda machines, engines, water systems, and so much more. You can easily find the needed dark color, different sizes, and pressure ratings to match your design.



Black PVC Pipe

Let’s just get this one out of the way. Even though you will see it used for Low Pressure Aeroponics and in some DIY projects. PVC pipe is a HORRIBLE idea and should NEVER be used. Let me say that again! DO NOT USE PVC piping for High Pressure Aeroponics. 

The reasons PVC is a “No Go” for High Pressure Aeroponics:

  • Many types do not hold high pressure and will burst. Only Schedule 40 or higher have decent pressure ratings. 
  • It has the disadvantage of being rigid which is more difficult for installation requiring more fittings.
  • Fittings generally are glued so unchangeable once installed. 

Copper Pipe

Copper Pipe

Copper pipe is many times the “pipe of choose” you will see plumbing many houses and/or buildings. It is rigid and holds pressure very well like Stainless Steel we talked about earlier. But let’s say it together! DO NOT USE COPPER PIPE IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM!!


  • Copper pipe is very expensive and why it is targeted by thieves in abandoned homes, construction sites, and etc. 
  • Copper pipe LEECHES heavy metals when it is regularly exposed to nutrient solution! This is NOT safe!!!
  • It will also degrade overtime in acidity of nutrient solution. This is a common known issue for copper pipe plumbing systems in buildings.
  • It is very difficult to install as it requires very expensive fittings and/or fittings that require “sweating” them in place. This is basically melting them in place for people that are do not know plumbing terms.

So Let me make it has clear as possible. DO NOT USE COPPER PIPE!!  

What to Avoid in General:

  •  Coloration: You should use black or dark colored tubing. White or clear tubing will allow light to reach your nutrient solution which creates issues. See our article on Nutrient Solution’s Worst Enemy: Light for more information.
  • Overspending: WATCH YOUR BUDGET as purchasing high-end tubing that holds 10X the pressure rating is a waste when other upgrades such as additional filters, better timers, and etc would provide an actual benefit to your system. 
  • Food Grade ONLY: Ensure ALL your tubing and plumbing is food grade. You do not want bad chemicals being picked up by your plants that may be passed to you on consumption. This includes heavy metals!

In Conclusion:

Yes! Lighting system or fancy nutrient dosing systems are important and always a “fun” subject to learn about. But you CANNOT forget the importance of the basic infrastructure of your hydroponic system. I always recommend everyone doing very good research on what they are using as a broken pipe, leeching heavy metals, and more issues can all be caused by a simple poor selection of piping. These issues with plumbing are very easy to avoid.

NEXT we will discuss FITTINGS which are the unions of all the plumbing. Fittings also are very important and definitely overlooked many times. They are part of the “backbone” of all hydroponic systems.  

General Types of Indoor Growing Environments

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Large Corn field at a farm

When many people think about farming and agriculture, massive corn fields are what come to mind here in USA. I am sure that is different depending on where in the world you are located but the same idea. HUGE OUTDOOR FIELDS is what comes to mind. 

But today we are talking about Many Different types of Indoor Growing Environments. Many people see Indoor Growing as a way of the future. But due to its higher entry cost, it is less common. This is changing as our world is changing which is causing more & more large scale “indoor growing” operations are popping up everywhere.  

Indoor Growing - In General

Indoor growing is the act of cultivating plants “inside” VS traditional “outdoor” agriculture where plants are cultivated outside. Indoor growing can have many different advantages basically due to your ability to “take control” almost all growing conditions known as Environmental Factors (Check Out Our Article). The more optimum growing conditions you provide? The better your crops will do growing faster, stronger, and most likely better yields. 

Large Commercial Greenhouse Complex


  • Better control of growing conditions
  • Can control almost all conditions instead of just “some” with outdoor growing
  • Extend the growing season
  • Allow plants that can’t grow outdoors in certain climates to be grown. 
  • So much more!


  • Much higher cost per sqft of growing space.
  • More complicated than traditional outdoor growing where “mother nature” takes care of many environmental factors.


Greenhouses are what most people think of when “Indoor Growing” is brought up. That is because traditionally they have been the center of indoor growing. They provide the benefits of better control of all the environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2 Levels, and so much more like all indoor growing methods. But many places / crops will not require Growing Lights in a Greenhouse unlike the other types of Indoor Growing Environments. This is clearly due to the Greenhouses are usually covered in a transparent material such as glass, plastic, plexiglass, and such. These materials allow natural sun through. 

Greenhouses come in many different forms and size factors from massive commercial greenhouse complexes to tiny “cold frames” that you can’t even walk in. They have many different structural designs from “hoop houses” to more traditional framed greenhouses. They can also range from very economical plain metal frames covered in plastic to very expensive / beautiful iron frames with glass. The types, designs, and purposes are almost endless with Greenhouses.   

Commercial Greenhouse Complex

Commercial Greenhouse Complex example

"Hoop House" Greenhouse

Commercial Hoop House Greenhouse

Residental Frame Greenhouse

Residential Greenhouse Example

Cold Frame Greenhouse

Cold Frame Greenhouse Example

Grow Rooms

Grow Rooms have grown in popularity over the last few decades. This is due to high level of control they provide AND most important security. Many crops raised in Grow Rooms are of very high value where the grower wants better security than a traditional greenhouse can offer. 

Like a greenhouse, Grow Rooms provide all the benefits of the control ability of all environmental factors. They are also many times more “sanitary” with less pest and disease problems compared to greenhouses. However, they are more costly to setup per SQFT compared to Greenhouses due to they require more ventilation, SQFT inside a building, LIGHT for the plants to grow. This light is provided by one or more types of grow lighting systems. Check out our many articles on Grow Lights such as Different Types of Grow Lights (Click Here)

Grow Room Example

Grow Tent

Mars Hydro 8' X 8' Grow Tent

Grow Tents are extremely popular growing solutions for the person looking to grow couple plants. They are very economical compared to a full blown Grow Room, easily movable to new location, and many other advantages. But they generally only come in up to 8′ X 8′ which is a limiting factor if you plan to continue expanding overtime. 

Quality Grow Tents will come with metal pole system as its “skeleton” support structure. AVOID PLASTIC! The material should be a heavy canvas for longevity with quality zippers / clips for openings. They come in many different sizes ranging from as small as 2′ X 2′ for a corner of a room to the larger 8′ X 8′ more suited as a movable “grow room.”

If you would like to learn more about Grow Tents, check out our other articles such as Overview of Grow Tents (Click Here)

Hydro-Unlimited actually sells an amazingly quality line of Grow Tents from Mars Hydro. Check them out by Clicking Here!

Hydroponic Grow Tent Example

Grow Box

Supercloset Trinity Grow Box

Grow Boxes or Grow Cabinets are generally the smallest of the growing units. They generally are used in place of a Grow Tent when the grow is only few plants which require top level security. They range from the size of a desktop computer to very large storage cabinets.

Many people DIY build them or you can buy one from multiple builders such as SuperClosets. They can range in cost depending on options and size from $500 to $5000! 

To Close

In closing, “Indoor Growing” is very important means of agriculture. It has been greatly growing in use over last few decades. This started with the most valuable crops, but it now has become way more common in many more different crops. This has been greatly due to the rise in commercial hydroponics which is mainly done in Greenhouses. Indoor Growing has allowed for plants to be grow in different climates more successfully, provide food when late frosts destroyed traditional outdoor crop yields, and so much more. We have and will continue to write many articles on Indoor Growing so please explore our blog and subscribe for our regular new articles!

Introduction Low Pressure Aeroponics

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What is Aeroponics VS Hydroponics>??

Let’s get some confusion out of the way. Aeroponics is a TYPE of Hydroponics! Hydroponics is growing method of growing plants in a water / air instead of traditional agriculture using a soil media.

Now there is TWO Subtypes of Aeroponics! Their main difference is the idea of high volume of nutrient solution at low pressure VS low volume of nutrient solution at high pressure. This is the Ideological difference between High Pressure VS Low Pressure Aeroponics.

The two systems types have many other types of differences but we discuss in other articles such as Low VS High Pressure Aeroponics (One of our most popular articles currently!) Today is about the Introduction of Low Pressure Aeroponics known widely as LPA

What is Low Pressure Aeroponics?

In general, Aeroponics is much different than other types of hydroponics. In other Hydroponic types, root systems are generally “in” hydroponic solution. While in Aeroponics, the roots are suspended in air and misted with nutrient solution on a regular basis. Low pressure aeroponics the roots are heavily misted and many times reach down into the nutrient solution reservoir. In LPA, pumps are selected more for higher water volume than pressure. The mist is course and larger in size.  

Basic LPA System Design

Low Pressure Aeroponic System Diagram

Root Chamber

Vertical Aeroponic towers greenhouse

Shape / Size:

The root chambers come in many different shapes & sizes. Most chambers are setup completely dependent on type of crop being grown. They can range from upright / horizontal pipes for small leafy greens OR very deep for large crops such as tomatoes. 

Aeroponic Net Pot Layout

Plant Net Basket Layout:

Net baskets are mostly used with hydroton media. They are generally layout based on the type / size of crop being grown. MORE spacing is of course is needed for larger plants.  

Nutrient Reservoir (Combined):

Sometimes the Root Chamber & Nutrient Reservoir are combined together. This is especially true for smaller home systems. So when they are combined the systems can be almost be both DWC & LPA as the roots will hang down into the solution. If they are not combined than the extra nutrient solution not uptaken by the roots will drain back to the reservoir for re-circulation.

Nutrient Reservoir

Nutrient Reservoir Examples

The reservoir is simply a storage area for already mixed nutrient solution between spraying cycles for Aeroponics. The reservoir like said above can be a separate part of the system many times. This is always true for larger systems but depends on design for small ones.  Larger nutrient reservoirs can add capacity between maintenance but require monitoring of pH and ppM levels. 

Pump (Nutrient solution)

Low Pressure Aeroponic Pump Example

Pump(s) are required to create pressure to spray the plants’ root systems. In Low Pressure Aeroponics, pumps are selected for high volume rather than high pressure. Size needs to be based on design of the system including overall size, number of nozzles, and more. For smaller home based systems, Pond Pumps are popular.  


Low Pressure Aeroponics Mist Spray

Nozzles need to create a good spray pattern to well coat the root systems. In Low Pressure Aeroponics, they are selected for pattern and higher volume. The nozzles will operate at low pressures such as 10-30PSI. 

Blog Update: YouTube Channel Creation

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NEW Launch!

We are happy to announce have opened a YouTube Channel to Vlog. Hydro-Unlimited.Com Youtube Channel (Click here) We hope to offer our blogs with videos for better content but also post summaries for people that are more “visual” learners. You shall be seeing many “updates” to existing blog posts to include videos. But also videos being used from now on for many new blog posts!

CLICK HERE for New Hydro-Unlimited.Com Youtube Channel

Give our new channel “subscription” to keep up to date with new video releases! We hope it will be another AMAZING way for us to bring quality Hydroponic information to all our followers!

Business Update: 2022 Here We Come!

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Wow 2021 is Almost Over!?!

It has been an amazing and weird year for everyone here at Hydro-Unlimited. This year we followed thru with the re-opening of our website both for the Blog and Online Store. This reopening alone was crazy enough! But we had many other events that have made the year one to remember! 

Huge Successes!

  • Reopening of Hydro-Unlimited.Com Store & Blog: We hope that one day to rebuild the massive knowledge base Hydro-Unlimited provided the world for many years back in the early 2000s. Along with the great store many people trusted for good advise, pricing, and service! 
  • Partnership with Mars Hydro: We signed as an official distributor for Mars Hydro, so we can offer our clients their amazing quality Grow Lights, Grow Tents, and much more!
  • Re-Branding of our Business: Any business owner knows how important but difficult this can be. It has been a massive success for our business!
  • High Pressure Aeroponic System Development: We took leaps and bounds on the development of our own high pressure aeroponic system. We are developing “turn key solutions” AND NOW ALSO DIY solutions! We wish to offer the right solution to as many of our clients as possible! 

Difficulties & Challenges from 2021:

  • Covid-19! Can I say this one enough? Our world as we knew it was turned upside down by a virus which brought our modern world to its knees. This has created so many issues from many tragedies across the world, limited supplies, supply chain issues, and so much more! Through it all, we “rolled with the punches,” so we could re-open and serve our customers the best we could. We did this by increasing stock of popular items when available, changing business strategies to deal with the many issues, and so much more! We are proud to say we think we fared it successfully as possible.  
  • Re-Starting our Online Presence: This was huge even though we had done it very successfully before. Many things had changed over the years but extensive planning and long hours made it happen. YES it has been a GREAT SUCCESS!
  • FIRE! FIRE! FIRE! Our office actually burned down in the middle of the year due to an freak electrical fire in the building! Most everything was a total lose, but great business practices of off-site backups allowed us to continue on with minimal setbacks. 

In Conclusion

2021 is a year that will always be remembered. We re-opened our website but also the whole world faced massive “way of life” changes. Our business has made “leaps and bounds” in the right direction, so we cannot be more thankful! Hydro-Unlimited wishes to thank all our NEW and Loyal Existing Customers for helping make it all happen! We have many exciting things in store for 2022 so stay tuned!  

Nutrient Solution’s Worst Enemy – Light

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It seems crazy to say Light could be a bad thing for growing plants and Nutrient Solution’s Worse Enemy! As Light is extremely important to the whole growing process for plants. It provides the energy for plants to Photosynthesize which creates all the plant’s food simply. But just like it needs to be concentrated for the best growth effects, it needs to be completely KEPT AWAY FROM NUTRIENT SOLUTION!! If you do not listen to this warning, you are risking problems all the way to lose of your whole crop!

Importance of Light

The importance of light in the growth of all plants can’t be understated. It is absolutely vital and irreplaceable part of every plant’s food creation process. In most growing articles, light holds a very important place as a vital factor in success. It is so important that many grower invest large percentages of their equipment budgets into Lighting Systems to supplement or provide their plants all the light they need. Grow Lighting is easily multi-billion dollar industry!

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism’s activities.

Photosynthesis Process Picture
Photosynthesis Process simply shown

What is the Big Deal if Light Does So Much Good?

When nutrient solution is exposed to light for long periods of time, it can have very bad effects for the Hydroponic grow. The highly rich solution can start to have algae growth when exposed to light. When exposure is limited, the algae does not have all the “factors” it needs to successful grow like your intended crops. So light exposure needs to be limited!

What is algae?

Algae picture in hydroponic system

Algae is a simple, nonflowering, and typically aquatic plant of a large group that includes the seaweeds and many single-celled forms. Algae contain chlorophyll but lack true stems, roots, leaves, and vascular tissue.

What Problems Can Algae Cause?

Algae causes many different issues in a hydroponic system which will range depending on type of system, how bad the algae bloom is, and more! Here are a few of the major issues below:

  • Messes with your Nutrient level ppm: Algae has its own nutrient needs. It will use the nutrients out of the nutrient solution which you intended for your plants. 
  • Affect your pH levels: Algae just like your plants will affect your pH levels making them fluxulate faster than normal. Out of range pH levels can really negatively affect your yield as your crops won’t uptake nutrients efficiently. 
  • Clogging Hydroponic nozzles, pumps, and plumbing: Algae can easily be sucked from your nutrient reservoir into your hydroponic plumbing. It can clog filters, piping, and nozzles depending on the type of hydroponic system. This is huge issues in Aeroponics! 
  • Encourage disease growth: Algae creates unclean growing conditions which can easily encourage fungi such as root rots. These diseases can QUICKLY destroy the whole hydroponic crop!

How to Prevent Algae:

Algae needs to be prevented at all costs as it can create way too many issues with your targeted crop! If you take away this one important environmental factor needed for growth, it will greatly slow and/or stop algae growth! That is the point of this article as the only one you can effectively take away is LIGHT.

Few Ways to Limit Light:

  • Use dark solid color nutrient reservoirs. NO CLEAR!! While clear makes it easy to see solution levels, it allows light to the nutrient solution encouraging algae growth. Dark colors do not allow light through or at least highly limit it.
  • Use dark solid color plumbing such as black pipe. No clear or white piping as it allows light to the nutrient solution. If you have to use white pipe, consider painting it a dark color. 
  • Use dark solid color root chambers. As above, consider painting any white chambers to attempt to exclude as much light as possible. 

Other Anti Algae Measures:

  • Cleanliness: This is your first line of defense! After ever crop rotation, a hydroponic system should be cleaned to kill off any startings of algae from previous grows. 
  • Aeration and/or Circulation: Aeration and general movement discourages algae growth along with other benefits to your hydroponic grow. 

In Conclusion

It is hard to believe light can be bad in a hydroponic grow, but that is why it is the #1 overlooked issues. Limiting light exposure to the nutrient solution is one the best way to control Algae growth. This needs to be considered from hydroponic system design all the way to its operation & on-going maintenance!

Check out all our many other articles such as about important environment factors OR about different types of hydroponic systems

Importance of Airflow for Indoor Growing

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Airflow is one of the forgotten environmental factors of indoor growing. But is not any less important as you need to take advantage of the ability to control it and make optimum growing conditions. If you don’t, you can have decreased yields, disease problems, and other issues.  

Basic Reasoning:

In mother nature, airflow is naturally occurring caused by weather patterns thru wind and atmospheric conditions. Winds keep air moving and mixing which is important to a plant’s health. This keeps oxygen & CO2 levels mixed, humidity evenly distributed, and etc. This allows plants to get their natural needs to complete photosynthesis most efficiently.


Humidity is the level of moisture trapped in the air. It is caused by plants transpiring, bodies of water, and much more. If it is too low, it will dry out plants encouraging them to transpire too much. If it is too high, it can encourage the development of plant diseases. 

CO2 Levels

CO2 is a basic need for plants to complete photosynthesis in their leaves to feed themselves. With stagnate air, levels of CO2 can fall not and lower CO2 uptake. Less food production means less vegetative growth and weaker crop yields for fruiting plants.   

Temperature Control

If the air is not constantly mixing, hot spots can form. You can see this when you add cold water to a hot bath. It creates cold spots till it mixes. This stress can cause issues with growth. Air movement mixing temperature variations quicker than stagnate air. 

Purely Movement

“Wind” encourages plants to strengthen their growth so they don’t break under their own wieght. Strong growth prepares fruiting plants to bare the weight of their fruit and/or flowers.  

Simulating Mother Nature

Controlling this environmental factor is actually pretty easy. For indoor growing, it is completed with different types of fans for different purposes. Depending on the size of your growing environment, sizing can sometimes take some trial and error. 

Intake Fans

Intake fans pull in air to the growing space from outside. They are usually in-line fans type. This brings in fresh air from the outside and important for bringing in CO2 created by the outside world. Also, they are vital for bringing in cooler air. 

Exhaust Fans

Mars Hydro 2'X2' Grow Tent Kit

Exhaust fans are normally inline-type fans similar to intake fans. These fans exhaust out hot air, excess O2, and excess humidity. Many times people will also have carbon filters so the air does not smell especially if the outside is a living space.

These fans are just as important or more important than Intake fans for the tasks they do. Smaller grow environments can actually have only exhaust fans. The actions of sucking the air out of the grow space will create “negative air pressure.” This will cause air from the outside to be pulled in without an intake fan. 

Internal Circulation Fans

oscillating fan for grow room

Circulation fans are what you normally think of as an “osculating cage fan” for staying cool. They are very important for mixing the air in larger grow environments such as grow rooms and greenhouses. They also simulate wind to encourage stronger plant growth.


Airflow is a very important often overlooked environmental factor. You can start through trial and error OR many professional growers will run calculations on “air volume” in the grow space to size fan systems. Its control is very inexpensive compared to its importance for increasing yields and plant health. Check out our General Environmental Factors Post! (Click here)

Indoor Growing Environmental Factors

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So you are starting an indoor grow? Indoor growing environmental factors and their management is KEY to the most successful grow. The better you can dial in the environment, you can greatly increase yields of anything you are growing. Below I am going to talk about the most important Factors to try and control. 


Lighting if you are growing indoors is one of the most important environmental factor but easy to control. You need to control the timing, spectrum of light, and intensity of light. This is accomplished with timers, proper lights, and adjustable light hanging systems.   


Timing is how long the plants are exposed to light and in darkness each 24 hour period. This is accomplished with light timers. They work by have the lights plugged into them so a relay can turn the power on or off to the lighting system. Timing depends on the growth stage of your plants. Seedlings, Vegetative, and Flowering stages have different recommendations. These are normally tuned in depending on type of crop being grown. 

Simple Grow Light Timer
Simple Grow Light Timer

Above is a Simple Grow Light Timer that is a 24 hour mechanical cycle timer. They are very dependable and accurate. You will also see digital timers. These simple timers normally only control one lighting system at a time.

Below you will see an example of a commercial timer. These timer can be simple mechanical while controlling multiple lighting systems. But many of them now a days are digital and have remote control via WiFi or app. All your lighting systems plug into one timer in this case. They have pickup in popularity for residential grows in grow rooms and green houses where multiple lights are in use.   

example of commercial grow light controller
Example of Commercial Grow Light Controller

Light Spectrum

Light Spectrum is vey important to plant development as you need to “copy” sunlight seasonally.  Plants love more Blue spectrum during the vegetative stage then more red / orange during the flowering stage. Some lighting systems are full spectrum like many LED but others you have to run different bulbs to get the correct spectrum control. (Check out our blog on types of grow lights)

Light Spectrum Plants need for growth

Light Intensity

Light intensity is very important to proper growth of your plants. It is accomplished with light system sizing and proper distance hanging above plants. Sizing is normally based on wattage of the lighting system. Many lighting systems will tell you in specifications what Wattage is best for amount of “growing space.”

Next is spacing between plant and growing light. Spacing can be adjustable with adjustable light hangers. The spacing will vary depending on the type of lighting system for multiple reasons. Lights such as HID type which have greater “throwing” distance so can be set further away. LED types of systems need to be placed closer to the plants.  Also some lighting systems such as HID create a lot more heat so they need to be placed further than LED (Which runs very cool) so plants are not damaged. 

Grow room lighting distance explain


Temperature inside your growing environment is very important. All plants have preferred growing temperature range that should be controlled. This should be monitored with a temperature gage which can be as simple as showing you. Than there are more advanced options that have relays to control different temperature manipulating devices. These more advanced devices can turn on these devices if the temperature reading goes outside of a certain range. 

grow temperature control unit
Grow Temperature Control Unit

Devices used to control temperature can range from fans, A/C units, and heaters. Many people run fans from oscillating to inline duct fans constantly to keep air flow. A/C units and heaters are normally used for grows in non temperature controlled structures such as greenhouses and unfinished buildings / basements. 


Humidity is vey important as plants’ general overall health. It is basically the moisture level in the air. If it is too low it can cause plants to transpire too much and dry out. If it is too high than it can encourage different fungal diseases. 

You can monitor humidity similar to temperature and many temperature gages generally include humidity. Unless you are using heat which can dry out the air, most of the time humidity control is about even distribution through your grow space. Plants create humidity by transpiration so close to plants leaf canopy can have higher humidity level compared to rest of room if there is not air movement. So oscillating fans are popular to keep air circulating around the grow space. Exhaust fans can be used to lower humidity also

oscillating fan for grow room

Next Blog Post on Environmental Factors

Hydroponic Growing Environments

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Hydroponic systems generally do best in well controlled indoor growing environments. This is mostly accomplished by a few different methods. They include greenhouses, grow tents, grow rooms, and grow cabinets. This allows for cleanliness, control of the environmental factors, and more. Controlling the environment increases yields, crop quality, and less issues with the hydroponic system. 

Main Types of Grow Environments


Greenhouses range from small residential wall units to massive commercial operations. Wooden structures with glass have become a things of the past. They have been replaced by metal structure with polycarbonate “glass.” These structures are not only cheaper but last longer than traditional greenhouses. 

Hydroponic Greenhouse Example
Hydroponic Greenhouse Example


  • Provide great environmental control if setup correctly. With heating systems they can be used year around even during harsh winters. 
  • If lighting systems are used, they are used as supplemental light as greenhouses allow for sunlight.
  • Many times provide more room than other grow environment options


  • Generally the most expensive option by far.
  • May be unavailable to people without land to install them on. 
  • Some land especially in HOA’s may have covenant restriction against building a greenhouse at your home.

Grow Rooms

Grow rooms are also a popular option for people that have extra space in their basements. Basically you have a walled off room, walls need to be flat white, and electrical available. You will need to install all the ventilations and grow lighting will be required unlike a greenhouse. But many times people build them similar size or larger than many residential greenhouses. They are mostly seen as the best truly indoor option.

Grow Room Diagram
Grow Room Diagram


  • Can be done in houses inside HOA’s or restrictive land covenants due to its inside the house. 
  • Depending if you already have a walled off room in your basement, can be much cheaper than building a greenhouse


  • Requires grow lights unlike the greenhouse
  • Can be expensive if you have to wall off a new room in your basement.

Grow Tent

Grow Tents are a great option for people that have less space than a full grow room. They are like their names sounds, a frame holding up a tent to create this controlled environment for your plants. They can also be a great option for someone wanting something the size of a grow room but do not want to wall off their basement. We carry a Mar Hydro 8’X8′ unit that is like a mini grow room in size. 

Mars Hydro 4'x4' Grow Tent
Mars Hydro 4'x4' Grow Tent


  • Very cheap and affordable option compared to above two.
  • Portable if you ever need to move it.
  • Provides a great controlled growing environment for your plants.


  • Require grow lighting to provide all light for plants
  • Wear out faster than above two more expensive options. But you can get years of service out of a quality product. 

Grow Cabinets / Boxes

This method of controlled growing environment is normally the smallest. They can be as small as a PC up to a large wall cabinet. Most people that use them live in apartments or have limited space. They are popular as they are less obvious in appearance compared to a more affordable grow tent.   

Grow Box example


  • More stealthy in appearance compared to any other option.
  • Many sizes available to fit even small spaces.
  • Portable if needed. 


  • More expensive than a Grow Tent
  • Customization is more difficult 
  • Harder to transport as they can be very heavy

Grow Tent Overview

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Grow tents are amazing growing tools especially in the urban environment. Best grows have controlled environment and they can provide that like a greenhouse. BUT in your home including apartments. We have partnered with Mars Hydro for LED lighting and they have a full line of grow tents also. So we will be referencing their produce lines which we fully recommend. I will give the basics of grow tents below!

What is Grow Tent?

Grow tents are similar to what you would think by its name. They are tents which are usually held up with metal or plastic frames to create a closed off growing space. The tent material is usually a canvas material that is either white or reflective on the inside surface. 

Mars Hydro Grow 2x2 tent
Mars Hydro Grow Tent frame

What is the Purpose of a Grow Tent?

A grow tent offer additional control of the environment that your indoor grow is experiencing. Many people can’t setup whole grow rooms nor have the outside space for a green house. Grow tents offer a smaller version of these types of spaces for a very affordable price.

  • Controlling temperature, light exposure, humidity, CO2 levels, and etc are all possible with a Grow Tent (and proper equipment). This is extremely important depending on crop as control of different factors can greatly increase yields and quality.
  • Cost of Grow Tents is a fraction of the cost of a greenhouse or building an indoor grow room. This makes it a way better option for residential small grows. 

What to look for in a Grow Tent?


You need to look at the weight rating of the frame and construction. Metal frames are best due to they are more rigid and stronger than plastic frames. This is important due to your lighting system, ventilation (fans, carbon filter, and etc.) will need to be hung from its framing. I highly suggest staying with metal frames even if it costs slightly more. 

Tent Material

Material should be a high quality canvas that is either flat/matt white or reflective. High quality is important as you do not want tears or light leaks. Finally the construction should be double stitched with heavy duty zippers.

Also you want to look at the options of the tent canvas. Options included such as:

  • Observation flaps (for quick checkups)
  • Adjustable ventilation holes for installation of ducts, fans, and/or carbon filtration.
  •  Adjustable port holes for irrigation lines, wiring, and etc.